《计算机应用研究》|Application Research of Computers

区块链共识算法演进过程

Evolution process of blockchain consensus algorithm

免费全文下载 (已被下载 次)  
获取PDF全文
作者 武岳,李军祥
机构 上海理工大学 管理学院,上海 200093
统计 摘要被查看 次,已被下载
文章编号 1001-3695(2020)07-036-2097-07
DOI 10.19734/j.issn.1001-3695.2019.02.0004
摘要 基于比特币技术衍生出了大量虚拟货币,其主要特点是对于比特币共识算法的优化和共识算法模式的变革。为研究共识算法演化历程,以比特币共识机制作为切入点,从源代码层级解析了比特币共识算法工作量证明(proof of work,POW)的工作原理及其优缺点,同时分析了比特币演进产生的以太坊共识算法。在理论探讨后,利用洛伦兹曲线及基尼系数评价比特币、以太坊共识机制的实际去中心化效果;并介绍了权益证明(proof of stake,POS)、股份授权证明机制(delegated proof of stake,DPOS)、实用拜占庭容错算法(practical Byzantine fault tolerance,PBFT)的演进过程及算法原理。最后,从共识算法去中心化能力、激励机制、处理效率、分布式安全性等方面进行了比较,得到了共识算法得分表及得分雷达图,以期为未来不同场景、不同需求的区块链应用提供共识算法分析标准。
关键词 区块链; 共识算法; 共识机制; 洛伦兹曲线; 基尼系数; 比特币
基金项目 国家自然科学基金资助项目(71572113,71432007,71871144)
国家自然科学基金匹配项目(IP16303003,2017KJFZ024,2018KJFZ035,2019KJFZ048)
本文URL http://www.arocmag.com/article/01-2020-07-036.html
英文标题 Evolution process of blockchain consensus algorithm
作者英文名 Wu Yue, Li Junxiang
机构英文名 Business School,University of Shanghai for Science & Technology,Shanghai 200093,China
英文摘要 A large number of tokens are spawned based on bitcoin technology, whose main attraction is the optimization of the bitcoin consensus algorithm and innovation of its model. In order to study the evolution process of the consensus algorithm, taking bitcoin consensus mechanism as an entrance, this paper analyzed the source code level of working principle and advantages and disadvantages of proof of work(POW) of bitcoin consensus algorithm and Ethereum consensus algorithm generated by the bitcoin evolution. After theoretical discussion, this paper used Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to evaluate the actual distribution effect of bitcoins and Ethereum consensus mechanism and introduced the evolution process and algorithm principle of proof of stake(POS), delegated proof of stake(DPOS) and practical Byzantine fault tolerance(PBFT). Finally, by comparing the decentralization ability, incentive mechanism, processing efficiency and distributed security of the consensus algorithms, it obtained a score table and a radar map of consensus algorithm so as to provide an analysis standard of consensus algorithms for future blockchain application with different scenarios and requirements.
英文关键词 blockchain; consensus algorithm; consensus mechanism; Lorenz curve; Gini coefficient; bitcoin
参考文献 查看稿件参考文献
 
收稿日期 2019/2/18
修回日期 2019/3/28
页码 2097-2103
中图分类号 TP301.6
文献标志码 A